Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Populus tremula – Aspen


General Information
Common Name Aspen
Scientific Name Populus tremula
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height 10-20 m (33 - 66 ft)
Spread 6 -12 m (20 - 40 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Early Spring
Color Green
Flower Color Yellow
Type Tree
Native Europe, USA
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order/ Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Populus L. – cottonwood
Species P. tremula

Populus tremula – Aspen
Populus tremula common name is Aspen also called European Aspen. This is a moderate sized poplar, erect with a lender crown and trunk, is perhaps best known from its roundest leaves which almost ceaselessly quiver and rustle even on calm days. It is very hardy and tolerates well places, unfortunately perhaps, it is often surrounded with numerous suckers which may even form a thicket.
The adult leaves, produced on branches of mature trees, are nearly round, slightly wider than long, 2–8 cm diameter, with a coarsely toothed margin and a laterally flattened petiole 4–8 cm long. The young green shoots soon become smooth and golden brown, and then darken. The branch-less are smooth and shiny with winter buds that are shiny reddish-brown and sometimes somewhat sticky. The roundish leaves, on a long thin much flattened leaf-stalk, are dull, rich green on top, paler yellow underneath, three prominent veins radiate from the base, and the outer rim has indented edges and is sometimes tinged with red. The quivering leaves persist on the tree late into the autumn, turning a rich yellow before they fall.
The male catkins, which open late in February, are woolly on account of the deeply cut and hairy scales, they have purple stamens, later contrasting with the yellow pollen. The seed capsules burst in the latter part of May, but seed rarely germinates well. Propagation is best by root cuttings.
At first the bark is pale greenish-grey and smooth, becoming dark grey and rugged with age. The white wood is light and soft, and is excellent for match sticks and match boxes. Other uses include ‘chip’ baskets, paper pulp and wood wool. The tree seldom reaches a suitable timber size in Europe, so attempts to cultivate it are rare.



Populus tremula – Aspen

European Aspen : Leaves

European Aspen : Leaves

European Aspen : Leaves

European Aspen : Flowers

European Aspen : Flowers

European Aspen : Flowers

European Aspen : Bark

European Aspen : Trunk

European Aspen : Log

European Aspen : in Autumn

European Aspen in Autumn

European Aspen in Autumn

European Aspen

European Aspen

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar

General Information
Common Name Lombardy Poplar
Scientific Name Populus nigra
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height 40-50 m (130-150 ft)
Spread 6 -12 m (20 - 40 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Late Spring
Color Green
Flower Color Yellow
Type Tree
Native Europe, USA
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order/ Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Populus L. – cottonwood
Species P. nigra

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar
Populus Nigra subspecies 'Italica' common name is Lombardy Poplar. This is well known poplar in Europe. It is a narrow erect tall tree with a graceful plume-like fastigiated outline which adds dignity to the landscape.
Sub-species of Populus nigra:
Populus nigra sub-species: nigra. Central and eastern Europe. Leaves and shoots glabrous (hairless); bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed.
Populus nigra sub-species: betulifolia (Pursh) W.Wettst. North-west Europe (France, Great Britain, Ireland). Leaf veins and shoots finely downy; bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed, often with heavy burrs, trunk usually heavily leaning.
Populus nigra sub-species: caudina (Ten.) Bugała. Mediterranean region, also southwest Asia if var. afghanica not distinguished.
Populus nigra var. sub-species: afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (syn. P. nigra var. thevestina (Dode) Bean). Southwest Asia; treated as a cultivar of P. nigra by many botanists and as a distinct species P. afghanica by others bark smooth, nearly white; leaves and shoots as subsp. caudina.
* 'Italica'. The true Lombardy poplar, selected in Lombardy, northern Italy, in the 17th century. The growth is fastigiate, with a very narrow crown. Coming from the Mediterranean region, it is adapted to hot, dry summers and grows poorly in humid conditions, being short-lived due to fungal diseases. It is a male clone.

The green shoots become pale yellow, then grayish or brown. The reddish-brown winter buds are oval and pointed. The leaves are triangular in shape, though the basal angles are rounded, not sharp. This is a deciduous tree.
The short pendent male catkins have red anthers. They shed pollen in late March or early April. Female catkins are longer, green and curved.
The bark soon becomes rugged, and is almost black at the base, smooth and grey or brown on the upper part. The branches are all more or less erect. The tree normally never suckers, but when cut down suckers arise over practically the whole extent covered by its root system. It is useless for timber particularly on account of its numerous knots. 
The main purpose of planting the tree is to provide a screen, or a barrier against wind, dust and noise. It is easily struck from cuttings.


Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar Bark

 Lombardy Poplar Woods

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar Leaves

Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar Beauty
Populus Nigra - Lombardy Poplar


Monday, February 10, 2014

Populus nigra - Black Poplar

General Information
Common Name Black Poplar
Scientific Name Populus nigra
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height 16-27 m (50 - 90 ft)
Spread 6 -12 m (20 - 40 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Late Spring
Color Green
Flower Color Yellow
Type Tree
Native Europe, USA
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order/ Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Populus L. – cottonwood
Species P. nigra

Populus nigra - Black Poplar
Populus nigra common name is Black Poplar. This is poplar is native to Europe, though it is not common, and its epithet ‘black’ may have arisen only from contrast with the White Poplar and the Grey Poplar. It is a large heavily limbed tree, sparsely branched, with some of the main branches descending in arches. On it short massive trunk it often carries conspicuous large burrs.

Sub-species of Populus nigra:
* Populus nigra sub-species: nigra. Central and eastern Europe. Leaves and shoots glabrous (hairless); bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed.
* Populus nigra sub-species: betulifolia (Pursh) W.Wettst. North-west Europe (France, Great Britain, Ireland). Leaf veins and shoots finely downy; bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed, often with heavy burrs, trunk usually heavily leaning.
* Populus nigra sub-species: caudina (Ten.) Bugała. Mediterranean region, also southwest Asia if var. afghanica not distinguished.
* Populus nigra var. sub-species: afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (syn. P. nigra var. thevestina (Dode) Bean). Southwest Asia; treated as a cultivar of P. nigra by many botanists and as a distinct species P. afghanica by others bark smooth, nearly white; leaves and shoots as subsp. caudina.
* 'Italica'. The true Lombardy poplar, selected in Lombardy, northern Italy, in the 17th century. The growth is fastigiate, with a very narrow crown. Coming from the Mediterranean region, it is adapted to hot, dry summers and grows poorly in humid conditions, being short-lived due to fungal diseases. It is a male clone.
The green shoots soon become yellow-ochre colored, thereafter turning grey, and finally darkening. The oval winter buds are reddish and pointed and are set at uneven intervals on all sides of the twigs. The leaves are triangular to rhombic in shape, though the basal angles are rounded, not sharp. They open as khaki or light brown, but are soon deep green on top, paler under neath, with a translucent margin which bears shallow teeth. The long stalks are flattened close to the leaf-blade. The leaves turn yellow in autumn.
The attractive male catkins expand and hang like lambs’ tails in March before the leaves unfold, the anthers are crimson until they show their pale yellow pollen. The female catkins, never on the same tree as the male, are longer, with stout greenish-white stigmas. They fall in early June as numerous small down-clad capsules but they seldon contain seed. The tree is propagated by cuttings. It rarely produces suckers.

The bark is almost black, deeply and irregularly furrowed into broad, thick ridges. The wood is almost white in color, soft and light, very open in texture but with woolly fibers. It is used for packing cases, and general purposes.



Black Poplar has now been replaced for commercial planting by its quicker-growing hybrid clones, such as Populus ‘Serotina’. These are established on fertile, well-watered lowland soils to yield timber for match sticks, match boxes and baskets.




Populus nigra - Black Poplar


Black Poplar Leaves


Populus nigra - Black Poplar : Huge Bark


Populus nigra - Black Poplar Bark


Populus nigra - Black Poplar in Autmn


Populus nigra - Black Poplar


Populus nigra - Black Poplar

Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn - Sloe


General Information
Common Name Blackthorn, Sloe
Scientific Name Prunus spinosa
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height 4.5-6 m (15 - 20 ft)
Spread 4.5 -6 m (15 - 20 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Early Summer
Color Green
Flower Color White
Type Tree
Native Europe, Western Asia, Northwest Africa
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Rosales
Family Rosaceae – Rose family
Genus Prunus L. – plum
Species P. spinosa

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn - Sloe
Prunus spinosa general name is Blackthorn but commonly called Sloe. It is a dwarfish tree which grows abundantly in hedgerows where, because of its many suckers and vicious black thorns, it is unpopular with farmers or on waste ground often forming impenetrable dense thickets.
Its black, thorn-studded twigs carry small alternate winter buds that are oval, bluntly pointed and reddish to purplish-black in color. The small (about an inch long) oval leaves are tender green on opening, have pointed tips, shallowly toothed margins, and dull red stalks. The leaves later become longer and narrower and a much darker duller green.
The leaves are usually preceded (though sometimes followed) in April by clouds of small, star-shaped, white, bi-sexual blossoms. The small round fruit (sloe) ripens through green flesh is intensely bitter to the taste and the stone is brown. The fruits are the source of sloe jelly. They are often fermented to produce sloe wine and if pickled in spirit they provide sloe gin.
The bark is black and on old trees it becomes broken into small square plates. The sapwood is pale yellow and the heartwood dark brown and tough. Though the tree is too small for use as timber, knobbly walking sticks are made from it and the wood was used to make the traditional Irish shillelagh. 





Leaves of Prunus spinosa

Leaves of Blackthorn - Sloe

Flowers of Prunus spinosa

Flowers of  Blackthorn - Sloe

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn - Sloe Leves

Thorn of Prunus spinosa

Thorn of Blackthorn - Sloe

Prunus spinosa  - Green Fruits

Fruits of Blackthorn - Sloe

Prunus spinosa - Fruits

Prunus spinosa - Seeds

Prunus spinosa -  Full blooms

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn - Sloe

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn - Sloe