Friday, August 10, 2018

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

General Information
Common Name Eastern Hemlock
Scientific Name Tsuga canadensis
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height up to 53 m (176 ft)
Spread 10 - 15 m (33 - 50 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Spring
Color Green,
Flower Color Yellow
Type Tree
Native USA, Europe.
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Subclass 
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Tsuga  –  Hemlock
Species T. canadensis

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock
Tsuga Canadensis, commonly known as Eastern Hemlock also known as Canadian Hemlock is native to eastern North America. It is the State Tree of Pennsylvania.
The eastern Hemlock is a full sun large tree but young plant grows fast under the shade. It is a long living tree, the oldest recorded specimen, found in Tionesta, Pennsylvania, being at least 555 years old. It is also a large tree generally grows 31 m (102 ft) in height, but sometimes it grows up to 53 m (174 ft) in height. The trunks diameter at breast height is often 1.5 m (5 ft) but also some trees have been recorded up to 1.8 m (6 ft) in diameter. Generally the trunk is grows straight and monopodial, but rarely it can be forked. The crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and deeply fissured, especially when growing older. The twigs are yellow-brown color and with darker red-brown pulvinus.  The buds are oval in shape and also very small, only 1.5 – 2.5 mm in length. These are not look like pitchy but may slightly look like same.
The leaves are typically 1.5 – 2.5 cm (0.6 – 1 in) in length. They are flanttened and are typically distichous, or two-ranked. The bottom part of the leaf is sea-blue with two plank and clearly visible stomatal bands, while the upper surfaces of the leaf color is a shiny green to yellow-green. The edges of the leaf are very slightly toothed, especially near the top.
The both sexes flowers are found in the same tree. The tree is monoecious, that is, male and female flowers are separate. Male flowers are small, round yellow cone shapes near the ends of branches. These male cones have globular pollen packets and are mounted on a short green stalk. Male flowers form conelets in April to early June, and release pollen for up to six weeks. The female cones are oval in shape and typically measure 1.5 – 2.5 cm (0.6 – 1 in) in length and 7 – 10 mm in width. The scales are ovate to cuneate in shape and 8 – 10 mm in length are 1 – 1.5 cm in width. The edge is more or less rounded and is often projected outward. Twenty-four diploid chromosomes are present within the trees. The female conelets have also developed in April to early June, with two ovules present on each cone scale, opening to receive pollen at about the same time that the male cones begin to produce it. After the pollination period, the female cones mature and develop until the autumn, and seed dispersal typically begins in mid-October and continues into the winter.
The wood of Eastern Hemlock is brittle and full of knots, thus not valuable for anything but rough wood needs. An extract of Hemlock bark was once a commercial source of tannin for the production of leather and that use led to the destruction of many mature stands of the tree. Other than the bark, the remainder was discarded. The leafy twigs uses to make of Hemlock Tea. It is plant as an ornamental plant in garden, park or road side.  T. Canadensis also commercially plant for Christmas tree.



Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Young Plant of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Young Plant

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock Young plant

Leaves of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Leaves

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock Leaves

Leaves of Tsuga canadensis
Male Flowers of Eastern Hemlock



Tsuga canadensis Male Flowers

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock Male Flowers

Female Cones of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Female Cones

Mature Cones of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Mature Cone

Cones of Eastern Hemlock

Bark of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Bark

Logs of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Logs

Ornamental Plant of Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis Ornamental Plant

 Eastern Hemlock Ornamental Plant

Ornamental Plant of Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Eastern Hemlock as Christmas tree

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis - Eastern Hemlock
Eastern Hemlock:

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

General Information
Common Name Western Hemlock
Scientific Name Tsuga heterophylla
Sun Tolerance Full Sun
Height up to 83 m (273 ft)
Spread 10 - 15 m (33 - 50 ft)
Growth Rate Fast
Bloom Time Spring
Color Green,
Flower Color Red
Type Tree
Native USA, Asia, Europe.
Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Subclass 
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Tsuga  –  Hemlock
Species T. heterophylla
Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock
Tsuga heterophylla commonly known as Western Hemlock is also called by its botanical name of ‘tsuga’. It is a conifer of tranquility and gracefulness, whose light lace-work of innumerable pendent branch-lets, and pendent whip-like leader are making it increasingly well known in Europe. It was introduced by John Jeffrey in 1853 from the Pacific coast of North America. It is a large evergreen tree growing to 50–70 m (165–230 ft) tall, Sometime up to 83 m (273 ft), and with a trunk diameter of up to 2.7 m  (9 ft). It is the largest species of hemlock, with the next largest (Mountain hemlock, T. mertensiana) reaching a maximum of 59 m (194 ft).
The young shoots are tender, drooping at their ends, at first pale yellowish-brown, darkening to reddish-brown. The small buds are brown and ovoid. The irregular needles are 1 – 2 cm long, have almost a round tip and are spread in two ranks in one plane; the upper rank has the shorter needles. Their upper surface is dark green and grooved; their lower is lighter and has two brands of grey stomata on either side of a slight midrib. The new pale green needles which flush in June fringe the edges of all the branches, giving the tree its best appearance. When billowed by the wind the light, almost glaucous, underside of the foliage is exposed in mass. The foliage when crushed has and odor with a supposed resemblance to that of the hemlock plant – hence the name of the tree.
Both sexes of flowers are found on the same tree, but in different parts. The small globular crimson, then yellow male flowers lie at the bases of needles near the tips of shoots. The small females, at first green and later pink or purple, are scaly, and lie at the ends of short, erect twigs. These produce cones about 2 cm long that are egg-shaped and pendent. At first they are green and tinged with crimson; later they have pale brown rounded scales. Small winged seeds are released early in autumn. Empty cones persist on the tree for many months.
The bark is at first russet-brown and smooth except for fine scales. Later it becomes darker and deeply furrowed into scaly ridges. The trunk thickens abruptly at the base, and is somewhat fluted. The wood is pale yellow-brown with a somewhat darker heartwood, fairly strong and of a fine texture. It is used for joinery, box-making, paper pulp and many general purposes.
Forester’s value ‘tsuga’ as a fast producer of heavy volume of timber and as an important underplant – indeed it prefers dappled shade and is difficult to stablish on bare ground.
The Eastern Hemlock, T. Canadensis Carr., is slow-growing and useless as a timber-tree in Europe, but not infrequently planted for ornament.




Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla Leaves

Leaves of Western Hemlock

Western Hemlock Leaves

Young Plant of Western Hemlock

Male Flowers of Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla Male Flowers

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock Male Flowers

Female Cone Western Hemlock Green & Mature

Mature Female Cone Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla Female Cones

Bark of Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla Bark

Log of Western Hemlock

Trunks of Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock as Ornamental Plant

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock
Video of Western Hemlock: