Friday, July 31, 2015

Tilia × europaea – Lime – Linden

General Information
Common Name 
Lime, Linden
Scientific Name 
Tilia × europaea
Sun Tolerance 
Height 
15 -50 m (49 - 164 ft)
Spread 
up to 12 m (up to 40 ft)
Growth Rate 
Bloom Time 
Summer
Color 
Flower Color 
Type 
Native 
Europe, USA
Classification
Kingdom 
Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom 
Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision
Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division 
Magnoliophyta - Flowering Plants
Class 
Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Subclass 
Dilleniidae
Order 
Malvales
Family 
Tiliaceae – Linden Family
Genus 
Tilia L. – Basswood
Species 
T. × europaea

Tilia × europaea – Lime – Linden
Tilia × europaea commonly known as Lime also known as Linden. It is native to Europe and North America, is a naturally occurring hybrid between Tilia cordata (small-leaved lime) and Tilia platyphyllos (large-leaved lime).  It is one of the tallest broadleaved trees of Europe. It is a large and long living deciduous tree grows 15–50 m (49–164 ft) in height with a trunk up to 2.5 m (8 ft) radius, with oval crown, arching lower branches, and red twigs, is a well-known and well-loved species, particularly in June and July when it is adorned with strongly scented yellowish flowers worked vigorously and noisily b honey-bees. For long it was a tree favored for avenues, but more recently it is less appreciated because of its often fluted and wide-spreading base, bushy unsightly stems (including witches brooms), and large bosses on its bole and base, from which may arise a mass of unwanted shoots.
The twigs are strongly zigzagged and reddish, dull crimson in color. The winter buds ae tinged with red, and have only two visible scales one much larger than the other. The 2-3 in long leaves have toothed margins, are heart-shaped, usually unequal at the base, and are dull green on the upper underneath – which underside is conspicuous when the foliage billows in the wind. Red or pink bud-scales are often associated with the leaves. The foliage is sometimes infested in midsummer with numerous tiny aphids, which exude sticky ‘honey-dew’. The leaves turn yellow or golden in the early autumn.
The yellowish-green bi-sexual flowers are borne in June and July (early summer) in clusters of four to ten on a long main stalk which also carries a narrowly oblong papery bract. Each flower has five green sepals and five greenish-white to yellow petals. The hard round downy seeds ripen in October.

At first the bark is smooth and greyish-green, striped with darker markings, but eventually becomes rough and fissured. It is fibrous and tough, and when young this ‘bast’ can be used for tying bundles of woodland produce. The wood is white smooth, even-grained and soft, much used in the past, and still occasionally, by the wood sculptor, and for hat blocks and piano keys. If felled, Lime copies vigorously. It tolerates lopping and trimming. The tree is rarely planted in woodlands. 


Lime Leaves

Tilia × europaea Leaves in Autumn

Lime Flowers

Tilia × europaea Flowers

Tilia × europaea Fruits

Lime Fruits

Lime Bud

Tilia × europaea Trunk

Lime Trunk

Tilia × europaea – Lime Bark

Lime in Autumn 
Tilia × europaea in Autumn

Lime as Ornamental Tree

Tilia × europaea as Ornamental Plant

Tilia × europaea – Lime – Linden

Tilia × europaea – Lime – Linden

Tilia × europaea – Lime – Linden

Friday, July 24, 2015

Sambucus nigra – Elder

General Information
Common Name 
Elder
Scientific Name 
Sambucus nigra
Sun Tolerance 
Height 
4 - 6 m (13-20 ft)
Spread 
up to 6 m (up to 20 ft)
Growth Rate 
Bloom Time 
Spring
Color 
Flower Color 
Type 
Native 
Asia,  Europe, USA
Classification
Kingdom 
Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom 
Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision
Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division 
Magnoliophyta - Flowering Plants
Class 
Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Subclass 
Asteridae
Order 
Dipsacales
Family 
Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family
Genus 
Species 
S. nigra

Sambucus nigra – Elder
Sambucus nigra common name is Elder also called European Elderberry. It grows wild almost everywhere in Europe. Usually it is no more than a bush, but it can form a small tree.
It is a deciduous bush or little tree generally growing 4 - 6 m (13-20 ft) in height at some point it turn into 10 m in tallness. The bark, light dim when youthful, changes to a coarse dim external bark with the long way wrinkling. The leaves are orchestrated in inverse combines, 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven handouts, the pamphlets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm wide, with a serrated margin.
Sambucus nigra – Elder
The twigs are stout but brittle, since they hold a thick white pith. They are often angular and bear vertical corky pores on their bark. The buds are oppositely set, with a clear leaf scar below them, and several loose brownish-red or purple scales. The leaves are compound-pinnate, comprised of five to seven oval leaflets with toothed margins, somewhat resembling Ash.
The fragrant, bi-sexual creamy-white June blossoms stand above the foliage in flat-topped cymes of 5-6 inches diameter. These blossoms are sometimes brewed to make a refreshing or medicinal tea. The flowers are succeeded by small green globular berries, eventually juicy and purple-black, much used for the making of elder-berry wine.
On young stems the bark is pale yellowish-brown, with prominent vertically disposed lenticels, which are at first pale but become darker. Later the bark rapidly becomes furrowed and corky, thick and greyish-brown in color. The wood when and horny in texture.
Elder is often treated as a weed, but sometimes as a favored covert plant. In sheltered places it may carry some green leaf throughout most of the year, but a hard frost will blacken and cripple the foliage.



Leaves of Elder

Flowers of Elder

Flowers of Sambucus nigra 

Elder Flowers

Sambucus nigra Flowers

Fruits of Elder

Fruits of Sambucus nigra 

Elder Fruits

Sambucus nigra Fruits

Sambucus nigra – Elder Fruits

Sambucus nigra – Elder

Bark of Elder

Bark of Sambucus nigra

Sambucus nigra – Elder full bloom


More About The Elder :