Friday, August 7, 2015

Ulmus procera – English Elm

General Information
Common Name 
English Elm
Scientific Name 
Ulmus procera
Sun Tolerance 
up to 40 m (up to 130 ft)
12-15 m (38-48 ft)
Growth Rate 
Bloom Time 
Flower Color 
Asia,  Europe, USA
Plantae – Plants
Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Magnoliophyta - Flowering Plants
Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Ulmaceae – Elm family
Ulmus L. – Elm 
U. procera

Ulmus procera – English Elm
Ulmus procera is commonly known as English Elm is native to Europe and North America. It is a large, deciduous tree.  It is a tree mainly found in Britain, holds a traditional place in lowland landscape because of its adaptability to life in hedgerows –due to its ability to spring up as sucker shoots from the roots of established trees. Unfortunately in recent years the Dutch Elm Disease has greatly reduced the numbers of this fine tree.
The young shoots branch from the stem at an angle of about 60­­0 whereas IN Wych Elm they are about 900. The long shoots have a zigzag growth, and some are irregularly ridged with a corky substance – they are then called ‘subeose’. The small winter buds are of a darker brown than the twigs; they are oval, end in a blunt point, and show several scales. The leaves are oval, with a much toothed margin and a short point; at the base they are oblique or uneven (asymmetrical), and the upper surface is roughened by short hairs. Patches of the foliage turn golden yellow in late summer, but the autumn leaves are among the latest of deciduous trees to fall.
The clusters of bi-sexual precocious flowers are purplish-crimson, and in mass give a reddish tinge to the whole crown when they appear during February or early March clustered close on the leafless twigs. The fruit, a seed (samara) is also formed before the leaves, and lies in the center of a pale green oval wing which is transparent, and notched at the apex. The wings cling festooned in masses of dense green cluster until June when they turn brown and then fall. Fertile seeds are rarely produced in spite of the numerous fruits that develop. English Elm is therefore usually established by rooted suckers.

In outline the tree is usually tall, with two, three or four tiers of crown, and very rarely forked. The grey bark, smooth at first, becomes thick and furrowed into rather narrow ridges or dark grey-blackish squares. The trunk often carries burrs and tufts of epicormics shoots. The heartwood is reddish or dark brown, coarse-textured, strong, firm and heavy, usually with an interlocked grain – hence it is extremely difficult to split and has a tendency to warp. It is long lasting if kept either continuously dry or continuously wet. Among its uses are coffin boards, chairs, tables, cabinets, stools, underwater goods, and furniture for house and garden.

Ulmus procera – English Elm in Autumn

Leaves of English Elm

Leaves of Ulmus procera 

 English Elm Leaves in Autumn

Ulmus procera – English Elm Leaves

Flowers of English Elm

Flowers of Ulmus procera 

Ulmus procera – English Elm Flowers

Seeds of English Elm

Seeds of Ulmus procera

Ulmus procera – English Elm Seeds

Trunks of English Elm

English Elm as Ornamental Plant

English Elm as Ornamental Plant in Autumn

 English Elm in Autumn

Ulmus procera in Autumn

Ulmus procera – English Elm


bazza said...

It's very sad the way that the English Elm is disappearing from the English landscape. It looks like the ash is next :-(
CLICK HERE for Bazza’s fabulous Blog ‘To Discover Ice’

Trees Planet said...

How you confirm this is not English Elm?

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